Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course | Part 2

Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course | Part 2

Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course | Part 2
Literature review
2.1. Introduction
Review of literature is one the most important steps in research process. It is a description and analysis of the literature relevant to a particular field or topic. It provides an overview of work already had been carried out and what are needed to. It is done with the purpose of providing support to the conceptual framework of the research study. The purpose of literature review is to gain deeper insight about the subject to develop instrument for data collection and find out certain data that may be applicable in the interpretation of the conclusion of the study. This chapter deals with Literature related to knowledge of stress and Literature related to coping strategies among unemployed youths.It represents a review of relevant topic from research as well as non-research areas, reports, articles, document, journal, books and internet.
2.2. Review of related literature
Related to stress
A cross sectional study was done in Canada to evaluate psychological distress among 17276 non workers by Alain Merchant, Aline Drapeau and Dominic Bealieu-prevost using k6 scale developed by Kessler through computer-assisted phone interviews. It was concluded that psychological distress was generally lower in workers than in non-workers with the mean difference of 1.85.
A longitudinal study was done in New York by the American college of occupational and environmental medicine after six months of September 11 attack among unemployed youths. During follow up after six months of the study, it was concluded that the prevalence of poor mental health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were higher among unemployed youths than that who got jobs. However, high level of perceived work stress predicted PTSD persistent among person employed at follow up (P=0.02).
A longitudinal study was done in Sweden by Gerdtham UG, Johanneshon M, among 30000 both employed and unemployed individuals aged 20 to 60 was followed up for 10 to 17 years. It was concluded that unemployment significantly increases the risk of death at the end of follow up by nearly fifty percent. It was found that stress related to unemployment increases risk of suicide and other diseases except cancer.
Mattis Strandih conducted a cohort study in Sweden among 1083 graduates from compulsory school in 1981 for the follow up time period of 27 years by using polytomous Universal model (PLUM) in order to compare between mental scar due to open youth unemployment and youth programs. Result showed strong and significant relationship between exposure to open youth unemployment and internalized mental Health Symptoms (IMHS) at age 21 (OR=2.48, CI=1.57-3.60) and 43 (OR=1.71, CI=1.20-2.43).
Related to coping strategies
A cross sectional study was done in Enugu state by the University of Nigeria among 150 unemployed graduates to test the hypotheses that unemployed graduate in Enugu would depend on families, friends, engage in menial jobs, be optimistic and patience as coping strategies for reducing financial stress. The hypotheses that unemployed graduates rely on instrumental support (p value 0.00) and positive reframing (p value 0.02) were accepted whereas the hypotheses that that the unemployed graduate rely on patience (p value 0.07) as coping strategies was rejected.
Mantler and Janet of American psychological Association conducted a comparative study among unemployed youths which concluded the emotion focused coping strategies were related to higher perceived stress whereas problem focused coping strategies were related to lower perceived stress due to unemployment
A cross sectional study done in Canada by Stephen Baron among 400 homeless youths revealed that the effect of unemployment on crime is mediated and moderated primarily by other variables like anger which is an example of ineffective coping strategies. On other hand,the lack of state support,decrease insocial control and prolonged homelessness lead to greater participation in criminal activities directly.
Mui Chung yan conducted a qualitative study in Canada involving a group of unemployed Vietnamese Chinese youth showed there experience to be similar to those of many others unemployed youth described in several major non-Canadian studies. It was found that family with primary source of support for youths in that situation. However, taking a cultural perspectives, this study also indicated the interrelationship of coping and culture.
A study done Sweden among unemployed youths by Janlert U concluded that there is causal link between unemployment and deterioration in health status due to stress. Unemployment persons were smokers to a greater extent than unemployment person. Unemployed men, especially young were engaged in alcohol consumption. The study revealed that there were positive correlation between unemployment and consumption of alcohol and smoking.
Christensen U conducted cross sectional study in Denmark among 575 unemployment men and 1064 unemployment women within objective to associate between educational attainment and coping strategies in a random sample. It was concluded that there is significant association between low educational attainment and low use of problem solving coping with odd ration of 1.81 among men and 1.51among women. High use of avoidant coping was associated with low educational attainment among men with odd ration 1.57 whereas for women medium educational attainment was significantly associated with low use of avoidant coping, odd ration 0.60.
Grossi G conducted a cross sectional study in Sweden among 166 unemployed men and women in order to assess coping strategies and emotional distress. Emotional distress was positively related to financial strain and more common among younger, divorced but less frequent among subject who had been unemployed for more than three years. It was found that emotion focused coping was positively related to emotional distress. Younger and divorced subjects made frequent use of both emotion focused and problem focused coping. Problem focused coping was less frequent among subject with low education coupled with low financial strain.
A cross sectional study was done in eastern china by Li Chen among 210 unemployed migrant workers to examine their mental health and coping strategies through interview based survey by using Chinese version of symptom checklist 90 revised and coping strategies questionnaire. It was found that long term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptom with mean SCL- 90- R, GSI scores for all 210 unemployed migrant workers above the cut- off point (GSI > 70).

Research methodology
3.1. Introduction

The research methodology gives overall picture about the structure directed towards the entire research.

3.2. Research design

A descriptive cross-sectional study will be carried out to assess the stress and coping strategies of unemployed youths.

3.3. Research setting

The study will be conducted in Budhanilakantha municipality ward no 10, Kapan, Kathmandu.

3.4. Study population and sampling

3.4.1. Population

The youths of ward no. 10 of Budhanilakantha, Kapan of the age group 20 to 39 years who have completed at least bachelor’s degree in any field of study and are unemployed.

3.4.2. Inclusion criteria

The youths who will available during the study period of ward no. 10.

3.4.3. Exclusion criteria

Youths who will not have interest to participate in the study,
Youths who will return from abroad in their holiday for short period of time.

3.4.4. Sampling technique

Purposive sampling technique will be used.

3.4.5. Sample size

The sample of 50 will be taken for this study.

3.5. Instrumentation for selected data collection

3.5.1. Data collection tools
The questionnaire will be used as the data collection tools which consist of 3 parts, where;
      Part I-structured questionnaire related to socio-economic variables.
      Part II- standard tool: perceived stress scale 10.
      Part III- standard too: brief cope scale.

3.5.2. Data collection techniques

Self-administered questionnaire technique will be used

3.5.3. Validity and Reliability

Validity of the study will be established by developing the instruments on the basis of peer review, literature review,and opinion of subject experts, research advisor.
The reliability of the study will be maintained by pre-testing on 10% of the sample population in Kapan community.Then, necessary modification will be done.

3.6. Data Processing and Analysis

The mode of data entry will be computerized. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software program will be used for data processing. The collected data will be checked, reviewed and organized for accuracyand completeness. The collected data will be entered and coded in SPSS program. Analysis and interpretation of the findings will be done with the help of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage) and will be presented in table.

      3.7. Limitation of the study
      Design            -   Only descriptive method will be used.
      Area               -    will be collected Kapan community.
      Time              -    Only 3 weeks for data collection
      Budget           -   Self finance  

3.8. Ethical considerations

      Formal approvals will be obtained from the concerned authority of college i.e. research committee to conduct research.
      Formal written permission will be taken from the concerned ward secretory by submitting an official letter.
      The informed and written consent from the respondents will be taken.
      Nobody will be forced to participate.
      The introduction of the researcher and the purpose of the study will be clearly stated in research instrument.
      The principle of the justice and human dignity will be maintained.
      Name or respondents will be used or mentioned in this study.
       Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity of the respondents will be maintained

1.     Christensen U, Schmidt L, Kriegbaum M, Hougaard Co, Holestein BE, coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference? Public health.2006; 34(4):363-70.
2. Chen L, Li W, He J, Wu L, Yan Z, Tang W. Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategies: a cross sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis BMC Public Health. 2012:12:597.
3. Gupta, R. (1999).  The Revised Caregiver Burden Scale. A preliminary evaluation.  Research on Social Work Practice, 9(4), 508-520.
4.   Grossi G. Coping and emotional distress in a sample of Swedish unemployed. Scand J Psychol. 1990 sept; 40(3):157-65.
          Retrieved from on 2074/2/20
5.     Hepburn, K. (2015). Care giver’s stress. A fact sheet from the office on women’s health. PP 1-2.
           Retrieved from review on 2074/2/20
6.     Hennemen A, E. Cardin, S (2002). Family centered critical care: A practical approach to make it happen. Critical Care Nurse.Vol.22 (6), 12-15.
7.     Hughes, F., Bryan, K., & Robbins, I. (2005). Relatives experiences of critical care. Nursing in Critical Care, 10(1), 23-30.Retrieved from on 2074/2/20.
8.     Janlert U. unemployment as a disease and diseases of the unemployed. Scand J Work environ Health. 1997; 23:7-83.
Stress management technique/ simply psychology. Available on , retrieved on 2074/2/21

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