Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course | Part 1

Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course

Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course | Part 1



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CHAPTER I
Introduction
1.1. Background of the study
The rate of unemployed people, who are without work, but who are available for work at current wages rate are increasing day by day.
According to the economic survey (2013-14), the employment growth rate is only 2.9 per cent in Nepal. According to the central bureau of statistics (CBS) 2014, age factor will be one of the reasons for economic inactivity. Other reasons for economically inactive population are studies household activities, being physically and mentally handicapped, sick people and pension recipients. These group will not contribute to the production of goods and services.
The problem is a burning challenge in Nepal as the number of unemployed people are rapidly increasing. There are many causes of unemployment. Firstly many people in Nepal engaged in agriculture areleaving their occupation. They go to town to look for good job but they cannot get any job easily and became unemployed. Secondly, some educated people are extremely traditional and think that they should not do simple and are left jobless. Thirdly, most of the students in Nepal lack technical and practical education. Fourthly, the job opportunity is very limited.
The United Nation defines ‘youth’ as persons between the ages of 15 to 24. The definition of youth varies across the globe; in Nepal. The population in the age group 16 to 40 years is considered youth as defined by national youth policy.
Every year Nepalese youth between 300000 to 350000 inter the job market. Only ten percent of them are absorbed in the domestic market. More than one lakh of these leave the country in search of jobs and rest remain here.
An economically active population (EAP) is defined by the 2011 census as people of ten years of age and over who are active in agricultural activities, wages/salary earnings, non-agricultural business activities and those seeking jobs. Following this definition 26 percent of all people were youth in 2008, making up nearly half of the economically active population. In 2011, 28 percent of the total population of Nepal is in the age group defined as youth, 54 percent of whom are girls and women.
Stress in psychology is defined as psychological response experienced on encountering a threat that we feel we do not have the resource to deal with.
If people do not get job there will be more chance of suffering of mental disorders like anxiety, depression, panic disorder and irritability. The physical health problem like hyper tension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases are more prevail to unemployed people. On the other hand they are likely to involve crimes such as robbery theft etc. we can see that unemployed youth are involved in drugs, smoking, drinking alcohol and even commit suicide.
Coping has been defined in psychological terms by Susan Folkman as Richard Lazarus as “constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demand that are appraised as taxing” or “exceeding the resources of the person”. Coping strategy has been traditionally conceptualised as “adaptive” vs “maladaptive” or as “problem focused” vs “emotion oriented” or “active” vs “avoidant”.
In order to solve the problem of unemployment, the opportunities and facilities of technical education should be decentralised. Youth should be encouraged to get technical education. In rural area, the government obliged to encourage the people to establish cottage industries. For the development of the nation, unemployed problem should be solved as soon as possible.
1.2. Rationale of the Study
According to the study of youth survey Nepal 2011, 40.7 percent of youth of Nepal were unemployed and the rate is still increasing. The problem of unemployment affect youth both physically and mentally. The level of psychological stress amount youth may begin with irritation, unable to concentrate, involvement in violence and illegal activities, substance abuse, depression and lastly leads to suicide.
National survey of drug used and health (2013) had concluded that 17 percent of unemployed workers had substance abuse whereas only 9 percent of fulltime workers are involved in substance abuse. On the other hand Nepal is in 8th ranked to have highest suicidal rate in the world according to Psychbigyan network Nepal (2015) in which one of the cause of suicide is unemployment. In a wider cross sectional study done in India, it was concluded that women who were employed but whose husband were unemployed were twice as likely to report physical domestic violence compared to the women who were unemployed but whose husband were employed. This study signifies that the level of stress and its reaction varies between male and female as well as depends on the socio cultural background.
In Nepal there are many studies done on the topic of unemployment rate and causes of unemployment. But there are no research studies done on the topic stress of unemployed youths and how they are coping with this problems. So this study has to assess stress level of unemployed youth and also provides information about how they are coping in and effective or ineffective ways to decrease their stress level.
1.3. Statement of the Problem
While looking at the global scenario,unemployment statistics show that percent of the total working population of USA, UK Japan are unemployed.The unemployment rate of the USA is 4.9 per percent,UK 5.9percent, Germany4.7 percent. According to International labour organization (ILO). About 201 million people were unemployed in 2015 and will be more than 212 million people by 2019.
The government of Nepal defines youth as people between the ages of 16 to 40 years but mostly considers age of 15 to 29 years. According to the youth survey 2011 done by the Nepal British Council, about 40.7 percent of the youth population were completely unemployed and 4 lakhs young people entered the labor market every year. Among the age range, 15 to 19 years, 57.1 percent were unemployed; among 20 to 24 aged youth, 36.4 percent were not employed and among 25 to 29 years, 27.4 percent were not involved in income generating.
Among those not involved in income generating activities 23.4 percent who comprised this group cited lacked opportunities as main reason for unemployment, 12 percent due to lack of skill and training, 11.5 percent because of economic condition while one percent due to lack of information. The problem of unemployment leads to increase in stress level which includes irritation, nervousness, depression that later result into involvement of substance abuse and illegal activities and even suicides.




1.4. Objectives of the study

General objectives
·        To assess stress and coping strategies among unemployed youth.
Specific Objectives
·        To assess the level of stress among unemployed youths.
·        To assess the type of coping strategies among unemployed youths.
·        To determine the association of stress level with selective socio demographic variables.
·        To determine the association of coping strategies with selective socio demographic variables.

1.5. Research Questions
·        What is the level of stress among the youths?
·        What are the coping strategies used by unemployed youths?

1.6. Study Variables

Dependent Variables: stress and coping strategies.

Independent Variables: age, sex, education, economic status, support from family.




1.7. Conceptual framework
Conceptual framework is the mental picture of the phenomenon, formulated to illustrate the key concept of the study, here, the independent variables are socio-demographic variables which include age, sex, education, economic status and support from family which affect two dependent variables, stress and coping strategies of unemployed youths. Then it is determined that whether the level of stress is high level or low level. On the other hand, it determined that whether the coping strategies are effective or ineffective.

Research Proposal Sample | Medical Course | Part 1

1.8. Operational definition

 
Youths: people who have completed at least bachelor’s degree and are unemployed with 20 to 39 years of age.
Unemployed:youth with no job as a source of income according to their qualification.
Stress: any matter that cause tension, irritation or bad mood due to unemployment.

High level stress: that scores more than an equal to 20 in perceived stress scale.
Low level stress: stress that scores less than 20 in perceived stress scale.
Coping strategies: different ways to deal with various stressors related to
Unemployment which are either effective or ineffective coping strategies.
Effective coping strategies: active coping strategies of brief cope scale used by unemployed youth that include acceptance, emotional support, religion, active coping, planning, positive reframing and instrumental support.
Ineffective coping strategies: avoidant coping strategy of brief cope scale used by unemployed youth that includes self-distraction, venting, humor, denial, behavioral dysfunction, substance abuse and self-blame.
Low socio economic status: family participants with income less than rupees10, 000
Middle economic status:participants with family income between rupees 10,000 to 30,000
High economic status:participants with family income more than rupees 30,000




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